The logical reasoning section is an important part of competitive exams. It contains different types of reasoning questions which are intended to judge analytical and logical reasoning skills of the candidate.
The logical reasoning questions can be verbal or non-verbal: In verbal logical reasoning questions, the concepts and problems are expressed in words. The candidates are required to read and understand the given text or paragraph and according choose the right answer from the given options. In non-verbal logical reasoning questions, the concepts and problems are expressed in the form of figures, images or diagrams and the candidates are required to understand them before choosing the right answer out of the given options.
Logical Reasoning: Verbal Reasoning
Logical reasoning (verbal reasoning) refers to the ability of a candidate to understand and logically work through concepts and problems expressed in words. It checks the ability to extract and work with the meaning, information, and implications from the bulk of the text. The logics are expressed verbally, and you have to understand the logic before solving the questions.
Logical Reasoning: Nov-Verbal Reasoning
Logical reasoning (non-verbal reasoning) refers to the ability of a candidate to understand and logically work through concepts and problems expressed in the form of images, diagrams, etc. It checks the ability to extract and work with the meaning, information, and implications from the given images or diagrams. Here, the logics are expressed non-verbally, and you have to understand the logic before solving them.
Table of Contents
Logical Reasoning: Verbal
- Number Series
- Letter Series
- Cause & Effect
- Verbal Classification
- Blood Relations
- Logical Sequence of Words
- Direction Sense Test
- Logical Venn Diagram
- Verification of the Truth of the Statement
- Data Sufficiency
- Coding Decoding
- Assertion and Reason
- Essential Part
- Analyzing Arguments
- Logical Problems
- Course of Action
- Matching Definition
- Statement and Assumptions
Logical Reasoning: Verbal
1) Number Series
1) Which number should come next in the series, 48, 24, 12, ......?
It is a simple division series in which each number is one-half of the previous number. We can also say that each number is divided by 2 to arrive at the next number;
On dividing 48 by 2, we get 24
On dividing 24 by 2, we get 12
So, on dividing 12 by 2, we will get 6 (option B).
2) Letter Series
1) RQP, ONM, _, IHG, FED, find the missing letters.
The series consists of letters in reverse alphabetical order. Therefore, the missing letters are LKJ.
1) PETAL: FLOWER
- Pen: Paper
- Engine: Car
- Cat: Dog
- Ball: Game
A petal is a part of the flower. In a similar way, an engine is a part of the car.
4) Cause and Effect
1) I. All the colleges in the city had to keep closed for three days a week.
II. Many students have left the local colleges.
- Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect
- Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect
- Both the statements are effects of independent causes
- Both the statements are independent causes
- Both the statements are effects of some common cause
Closing the colleges for few days in a week and students leaving the colleges are independent issues which must be the effects of independent causes.
5) Verbal Classification
1) Which word does not belong to others?
A kilogram measures weight and the other units are used to measure length.
6) Blood Relations
1) Pointing to a photograph, a man said, "I have no brother, and that man's father is my father's son." Whose photograph was it?
- His son
- His own
- His father
- His nephew
The narrator has no brother, so he is the only son of his father, and his father's son is he himself. Hence, the narrator is the father of the man in the photograph, so the man in the photograph is his son.
7) Logical Sequence of Words
1) Arrange the following words in a meaningful sequence.
- 1, 3, 4, 5, 2
- 1, 3, 2, 4, 5
- 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
- 2, 3, 5, 1, 4
Infection occurs first, then one visits a doctor, and after consultation, the doctor starts the treatment which is followed by recovery.
8) Direction Sense Test
1) Peter is in the East of Tom and Tom is in the North of John. Mike is in the South of John then in which direction of Peter is Mike?
9) Logical Venn Diagrams
1) Which of the following diagrams correctly represents lions, elephants, and animals?
Lions and elephants have no relationship to each other, but both are animals.
10) Verification of the Truth of the Statement
1) An animal always has
An animal will always have a life.
11) Data Sufficiency
1) What is Geeta's rank in the class?
I. There are 30 students in the class.
II. There are 10 students who scored less than Geeta.
- Statement I alone is sufficient, but statement II alone is not sufficient
- Statement II alone is sufficient, but statement I alone is not sufficient
- Either I or II is sufficient
- Neither I nor II is sufficient
- Both I and II are needed
From statements I and II, we conclude that out of 30 students 10 students scored less than Geeta. It means, 19 students scored more than Geeta. So, Geeta's rank in the class is 20th. Thus, both the statements are needed to answer the question.
12) Coding Decoding
1) If in a certain language, NOIDA is coded as OPJEB, how is DELHI coded in that language?
Each letter in the word NOIDA is moved one step forward to form the code OPJEB. So, in DELHI, D will be coded as E, E as F, L as M, H as I, I as J. Thus, the code becomes EFMIJ.
13) Assertion and Reason
1) Assertion (A): James Watt invented the steam engine.
Reason (R): It was invented to pump out the water from the flooded mines.
- Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
- Both A and R are true, but R is not the correct explanation of A.
- A is true, but R is false.
- A is false, but R is true.
- Both A and R are false.
The need of self-working engine to pump out the water from the flooded mines led James Watt to invent the steam engine.
14) Essential Part
A book cannot exist without pages.
15) Analyzing Arguments
1) If you are a fitness walker, you don't need to go to a health gym. You also don't need any fitness equipment for workout. All you need is a pair of comfortable athletic shoes.
This paragraph supports which of the following statements;
- Fitness walking is better than weight lifting
- Walking outdoors provides more health benefits than walking indoors
- Fitness walking is an effective and convenient form of exercise
- Poorly designed shoes can cause foot injuries
In this paragraph, the author is talking about the convenience of fitness walking. He is saying that fitness walking is a workout that does not need equipment and membership of a health gym.
16) Logical Problems
I. Pooja is older than Mukesh.
II. Suresh is older than Pooja.
III. Mukesh is older than Suresh.
If the first two statements are true, the third statement is
From the first two statements, it is clear that Mukesh is the youngest of the three. So, the third statement is false.
17) Course of Action
1) Statement: A severe drought is reported in many states of the country.
Courses of action;
I. The government should immediately provide financial assistance to the people of the affected states.
II. The government should immediately send food, water, and fodder to the affected states to save people and livestock.
- Only I follows
- Only II follows
- Either I or II follows
- Neither I nor II follows
- Both I and II follow
In this situation, the government should think about saving the lives of people and livestock by providing basic amenities like food and water. Providing financial assistance will not provide immediate relief and would put an extra burden on the funds.
18) Matching Definitions
1) It is called Restitution when you compensate someone for damaging his or her property in some way. Which of the following situations is the best example of Restitution?
- Tom borrows his friend's car and returns the car with an empty petrol tank. He apologizes and tells his friend that he will fill the tank tomorrow.
- Tom borrows his friend's camera. Tom fails to zipper the case, and the camera falls on the ground, and the lens shatters. When Tom returns the camera, he tells his friend that he will pay for the damage.
- Peter asks Tom to stay in his apartment when he is out of the town. One day Tom arrives to stay and finds that pipe has burst and the apartment is filled with water. He calls the plumber to repair the pipe and pays for the repair.
- A pothole in the parking of Peter's company caused his flat tyre. He informs his boss and expects that the company should pay for the repair.
Tom damaged his friend's camera when the camera was in his possession, and he agreed to pay for the repair.
I) All heroes are villains.
II) All villains are zeros.
III) Some heroes are jokers.
i) Some Jokers are heroes
ii) Some villains are jokers
iii) Some zeros are villains
- Only I, II follow
- All I, II, III follows
- Only I, III follow
- Only I, II follow
- None of these
From the given statement and the above diagram, it is clear that option B is the correct answer.
20) Statement and Assumptions
1) Statement: "You are hereby appointed as a software engineer with a probation period of six months and your skills and performance will be reviewed at the end of the probation period for confirmation." - A line written in an appointment letter.
I. The performance of the candidate is not known at the time of appointment.
II. An individual is likely to prove his worth during the probation period.
- Only I is implicit
- Only II is implicit
- Either I or II is implicit
- Neither I nor II is implicit
- Both I and II are implicit
The performance of a new employee is generally tested over a span of time. So, I is implicit. The statement also says that the individual's worth shall be reviewed during the probation period before confirmation. So, II is also implicit.
Logical Reasoning: Non-verbal
1) Image Series
1) Which answer figure will continue the same series as established by the problem figures?
In problem figure A, the arcs are towards arrow then in the next step arcs are pointed away from the arrow and so on.
Also, in the first two problem figures the arrows are pointing upward, and in the next two problem figures, the arrows are pointing downward and so on.
And, in the lower part of the problem figures, the two signs are changing their positions alternately.
Now, the answer figure 2 fulfills all the above conditions, so it will continue the series.
2) Construction of Shapes
1) Select three figures out of the following five figures which when fitted into each other would form a square.
- 1, 2, 4
- 1, 2, 5
- 5, 3, 1
- 2, 3, 4
Figures 1, 2 and 5 will form the square as shown in the following image;
1) Which of the following figures is different from others?
- figure A
- figure B
- figure C
- figure D
- figure E
Only in figure D, the symbols on either side of the horizontal line are different.
4) Picture Analogies
A color plate is to a color brush as a reel of a thread is to a sewing needle, i.e., color brush and sewing needle are the tools needed to perform the task. So, the needle will go in the empty box.
5) Rule Detection
1) Which of the following series of figures follows the given rule?
Rule: The closed figure loses its sides, and the open figure gains its sides as the series proceeds.
In the first series, the closed figure loses sides one by one and the open figure gains sides one by one as the series proceeds.